Disease and its classification

Any disorder or abnormalities in the body that disrupt the normal functioning of the body is termed as a disease. A disease is experienced by a combination of signs and symptoms that are shown by the body.

The symptom is the subjective evidence of the disease that can only be experienced by the patient and on the other hand, Sign is experienced by healthcare professionals and is the objective evidence of the disease. Some common symptoms include Nausea, Headache, Pain, Itching, etc. Temperature, Pulse, Heart Rate, Blood pressure, etc. are the observable conditions of the body that are included in signs.

The classification of disease is based on many factors and causes. Some of them are discussed here.

1. Acute Disease– Conditions that develop suddenly and persists for only a short period of time, often only a few days or weeks.

Examples include Common Cold, Flu, Heart Attack, Pneumonia, Strep throat, Bronchitis, Burn, Respiratory infection, etc.

2. Chronic Disease– Conditions that develop slowly and persist for an extended period of time.

Examples include Alzheimer’s disease, Arthritis, COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), Heart disease, Obesity, Osteoporosis, Diabetes, etc.

3. Autoimmune Disease– Conditions in which the body’s own immune system attacks healthy cells.

Examples include Lupus, Multiple sclerosis, SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus),

IBD (Inflammatory Bowed Disease), Chron’s disease, Grave’s disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, etc.

4. Congenital Disease or Congenital Disorder– Condition that is present at or before birth.

Examples include Congenital Heart Disease, Down’s syndrome, Cleft lip and Cleft palate, Edward’s Syndrome, etc.

5. Genetic Disease– Conditions that are caused by the abnormalities in the sequence of DNA or Gene. A genetic disease can be hereditary and can be passed from one generation to another generation through defective genes.

Examples include Cystic fibrosis, Sickle cell anemia, Huntington’s disease, Hemophilia, FXS (Fragile X syndrome), DMD (Duchene Muscular Dystrophy), Down’s syndrome, Thalassemia, etc.

6. Non-Communicable Disease (NCDs)– Conditions that are not caused by any infectious agents and are not transmitted from person to person.

Examples include cardiovascular disease, Diabetes, Cancer, COPD, Hypertension, Obesity, etc.

7. Contagious Disease or Communicable diseases– Conditions that are caused by infectious agents and are easily transmitted from one person to another person.

Examples include COVID19, Ebola, Flu, Hepatitis, AIDS, Rabies, TB, etc.

8. Infectious Disease– Conditions caused by the infectious agents such as Bacteria, Virus, Fungi, and Parasites.

The viral disease includes Influenza (Flu), Common Cold, Measles, Rubella, Chickenpox, Dengue, Polio, HSV (Herpes Simplex Virus), HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), Hepatitis, Viral Meningitis, West Nile Virus, Ebola, Swine flu, Chikungunya, etc.

The bacterial disease includes Strep throat, UTI (Urinary Tract Infection), Food poisoning, Vaginosis, Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, Chlamydia, Cough, Pneumonia, Tuberculosis, Bacterial meningitis, Whooping cough, Lyme disease, Tetanus, Anthrax, Typhoid, etc.

The fungal disease includes vaginal yeast infection, Ringworm, Athlete’s foot, Histoplasmosis, Cryptococcus infection, fungal meningitis, Aspergillosis, etc.

The parasitic disease includes Malaria, Toxoplasmosis, Trichomoniasis, Giardiasis, Pubic and head lice, Scabies, Leishmaniasis, River blindness, etc.

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